Directorates

Various Directorates of the Hospital

 

 

 

 

LABORATORY SERVICES

            Dr. Ernest Adjei
(BSc, MBChB, FRCPath, Senior Specialist)

                   Head of Directorate

INTRODUCTION

The Laboratory Services Directorate (LSD) was created out of the former Diagnostics Directorate. Microbiology (Bacteriology, Serology, Parasitology), Haematology, Biochemistry, together with the Pathology and mortuary services units forms the Laboratory Services Directorate, with a vision to becoming a center of highest quality Diagnostic Laboratory services and the most preferred point/ facility in Medical Laboratory Services in Ghana and beyond.

The staffs of our Directorate, from pathologists, medical laboratory scientists, technicians to phlebotomists, are all knowledgeable and experienced enough to provide the highest quality of medical laboratory and pathology services, in an efficient, rapid, and clinically relevant manner to meet the needs and expectations of all our clients.

STRUCTURE

The laboratory units are currently located at various locations within the Hospital. There are designated sample collection points where all laboratory samples are collected and distributed to the respective units. The Anatomic Pathology and mortuary services units are however located in one area. The management of the Hospital is seriously working towards a centralised laboratory building which will boost our space availability. This will lead to increase in number of analyzers and ultimately the spectrum of tests.

UNITS

The Laboratory Services Directorate is made up of units and sub-units offering services in the following laboratory disciplines and specialties:

  • Microbiology
  • Haematology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Anatomic Pathology
  • Mortuary services

Microbiology unit, for functional purposes, is divided into 3 units; namely Parasitology, Bacteriology and Serology.

  • Serology unit is responsible for testing for HIV, Hepatitis ‘B’ and ‘C’
  • Parasitology unit handles routine examination of stool and urine, microfilaria tests, stool for occult blood and identifies all parasites.
  • Bacteriology unit performs cultures and identification of bacterial pathogens from all clinical samples and antimicrobial sensitivity testing on isolates.
  • Haematology Unit has two sections:
  1. Polyclinic Haematology section- providing services to the KATH outpatients
  2. Accident and Emergency (A&E) Haematology section- providing in-patient and specialist haematological services
  • Clinical Biochemistry Unit has 3 service points located as follows:
  • B-Block Biochemistry
  • A&E Biochemistry
  • Renal clinic Biochemistry

The three sections provide comprehensive biochemical testing for patient care.

  • Anatomic Pathology unit
  • Histopathology Services
  • Cytotechnology services
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Mortuary and autopsy services

MANAGEMENT TEAM

The management is made up of;

  • Head of Directorate
  • Business Manager
  • Accountant
  • Head of Clinical Biochemistry
  • Head of Microbiology
  • Head of Haematology
  • Head of Pathology
  • Mortuary manager
  • Chief Biomedical Scientist

KEY FUNCTIONS AND SERVICES

Together, the laboratories continue to provide quality analytical, diagnostic and public health services that contribute to maximizing the effective delivery of healthcare service at KATH.

The Microbiology (Bacteriology section), Haematology (A&E section) and Biochemistry units offer 24-hour service all days of the week, including public holidays and weekends.

Pathology unit is open Mondays to Fridays between the hours of 08:00 and 17:00Hrs.

Parasitology and serology services are available Mondays to Fridays from 08:00 to 16:00Hrs, and from 07:00 to 13:00Hrs on Saturdays and holidays.

Phlebotomy service
For the convenience of Out-Patients, phlebotomy services are available at the Family Medicine Laboratories, C-Block (Biochemistry), and at the Serology Unit.

  1. CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY UNIT

Services/Tests available:
GENERAL/ CORE BIOCHEMICAL TESTS

  • Liver function tests (LFTs)

AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, Total Bilirubin, Direct Bilirubin, Indirect Bilirubin, Total protein, Albumin and Globulins

  • Kidney Function Tests (KFTs)

Urea, Creatinine, Na+, K+ and Cl

  • Lipid Profile

Total Cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C

  • Blood Glucose Profile

FBS, RBS, HbA1c, Insulin, and OGTT

  • Cardiac Profile
    AST, CK, LDH, CK- MB and Troponin I
  • Bone Profile
  • Alkaline phosphatase, Albumin, Creatinine, Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Uric Acid,
  • Pancreatic Enzymes

P- amylase and Lipase

  • SPECIALIZED TEST:
  • HORMONAL ASSAYS
  • Thyroid Function Test (TFT)
    TSH, T3 and T4
  • Fertility Profile
  • Female Fertility Hormones (LH, FSH, PRG, PRL and Estrogen)
  • Male Fertility Hormones (LH, FSH, PRL and TESTOSTERONE)
  • Tumor Markers
    PSA, CA 15-3, ß-HCG, CA 19-9, CEA, CA-125, a-Feto Protein (AFP)
  • Arterial Blood gases

pCO2, pO2, SO2, Bicarbonate, pH

  • Others
  • Digoxin and Cortisol
  • Biochemical analysis on body fluids (Cerebrospinal fluid, Pleural aspirate, Ascitic fluid)
  • Urine Protein/Creatinine
  1. HAEMATOLOGY UNIT

The air-conditioned laboratories are well equipped with computers and state-of-the-art haematological equipment, including:

  • SYSMEX XN 2000 AUTO ANALYZER
  • BIORAD VARIANT II
  • ACL ELITE COAGULOMETER
  • TITAN PLUS ELECTROPHORESIS PACK
  • RAL SEMI AUTOMATED STAINER
  • Services/Tests available:
  • Full blood count (FBC) / Complete blood count (CBC)
  • Reticulocyte count
  • Blood film for Malaria parasites
  • Blood film for Cell morphology (Film comment)
  • Bleeding Time
  • Clotting Time
  • Prothrombin time (PT) / INR
  • Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT)
  • D-dimer
  • Factor VIII & IX Assays
  • Von Williebrand Factor Activity
  • Protein S Activity
  • Protein C
  • Sickling Test & Hb. Genotype (Electrophoresis)
  • Quantification of Hb variants (HPLC)
  • Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
  • Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase test (G6PD)
  1. MICROBIOLOGY UNIT
  • Bacteriology Lab

Services/Tests available:

  • Blood for culture and sensitivity (C/S)

The laboratory has a high performance BD BACTECTM (9240 & FX-40 series) Automated Blood Culture systems which is used for BLOOD CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY (C/S) tests.

BACTEC™ Blood Culture Vials can be obtained directly from the reception/front desk at Lab room 2, at all hours.

  • BD BACTEC™ PEDS PLUS CULTURE VIALS (PINK TOP) should be used for pediatric cases, i.e. PATIENTS/CLIENTS 12 YEARS AND BELOW;
  • BD BACTEC™ PLUS AEROBIC CULTURE VIALS (ASH TOP) should be used for adults, i.e. PATIENTS/CLIENTS ABOVE 12 YEARS.
  • Urine for culture and sensitivity (C/S)
    Sterile containers for Urine C/S can be obtained from the reception of the laboratory. Midstream specimen is required. Where suprapubic tap is used to obtain urine, it should be stated clearly on the request form. Urine specimen should reach the lab within an hour of collection.
  • Stool for culture and sensitivity (C/S)
    Vials for stool culture can be obtained from the lab. A spoonful of stool is required for the tests. Stool sample should reach the lab within an hour of collection.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for Gram stain, cell count and C/S
    Sterile Bijoux bottles are preferred and available at the lab for the collection of CSF for culture and sensitivity tests. The sample can be submitted to the lab in the syringe.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for India ink stain (cryptococcus test), Acid Fast smear (ZN) stain, GeneXpert for MTb
  • Semen for Analysis and C/S

Patients would be directed from the reception/front desk to the appropriate personnel for an appointment and instructions regarding the test. Masturbation is the recommended method for producing the specimen.

  • Sputum for C/S, Acid Fast smear (ZN/Auramine/Fluorescent), GeneXpert for MTb
  • Wound swab for C/S
  • Urethral swab for C/S
  • High Vaginal Swab (HVS) for routine examination (R/E) and C/S
  • Endocervical swab (ECS) for Gram stain and C/S
  • Eye swab for Gram stain and C/S
  • Ear swab for Gram stain and C/S
  • Nasopharyngeal swab for C/S
  • Throat swab for C/S
  • Rectal swab for Vibrio cholera culture
  • Scrapings (Skin, Palm, Hair, Fingernail, Toenail, Corneal) for Wet prep (KOH) and Fungus culture
  • Urine for Pregnancy test
  • Blood/Serum for Widal test, Syphilis screen (VDRL/RPR test), Syphilis confirmation test (TPHA)
  • Aspirate (Gastric, Pleural, Abscess/Pus, Ascitic, Pericardial, Synovial, other body fluids) for Gram stain, Cell count, ZN stain, GeneXpert for MTb, and C/S
  • Other/miscellaneous samples (Tissue, Catheter tip, corneal scraping, tracheal, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), Amniotic fluid, etc, for C/S
  • Special bacteriology services (Non-routine)
  • Neurosyphilis test (CSF-VDRL)
  • Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) determination: E-test
  • Sterility check on Pharmaceutical products
  • Screening surveillance
  • MRSA screen

The Bacteriology Laboratory is enrolled on the WHO/AFRO/NICD MICROBIOLOGY EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT PROFICICIENCY TESTING PROGRAMME; Lab. Participating Code B2178

Parasitology Lab,

Tests available:

  • Routine Urine examination (Urinalysis),
  • Routine stool examination,
  • Stool for Occult Blood analysis,
  • Blood test for Filaria worms analysis,
  • Skin snip for Onchocerca analysis,
  • Urine for Bence-Jones Protein analysis
  • Urine Microalbumin test
  • Stool Helicobacter pylori antigen test

Serology/Virology Lab.

Tests available:

  • HIV screening & confirmation
  • HBV and HCV testing
  • CD4 Count,
  • HIV and HBV Viral load
  • CD4/CD8/CD3/CD45 Count.

PATHOLOGY UNIT

Services available:

  • Histopathology
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cytopathology: FNAC, urine cytology, pleural fluid, ascitic fluid, CSF, Breast cysts
  • Morgue: Body storage and embalming
  • Autopsy: Hospital autopsies, forensic autopsies and coroner autopsies.
  • Training & Research
  • The directorate serves as a center for rotation for allied health professionals in various training institutions within Ghana and outside Ghana. The Directorate continues to receive requests from various institutions (local and external) for attachment at the various laboratory units of the Hospital.
  • There are various types of research work ongoing at some units.
  • Collaborations

There have been several research collaborations with many of the clinical directorates of the Hospital, institutions, and the international community.

There have also been several exchange and collaborative programs for which some staff of the Directorate visited other laboratories abroad.

  • Research collaboration with International Center for Studies into Breast Cancer Subtypes (ICSBCS), Weill Cornell Medical College, NY, USA
  • Research collaboration with University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany with sponsorship from ESTHER Germany. Project title: “Optimizing microbiological diagnostics and rational utilization of antimicrobials at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital”
  • Research collaboration with the U.S Naval Medical Research Unit under the project title “Austere environments consortium for enhanced sepsis outcomes (ACESO)”
  • Technical support collaboration with University Hospital of North Norway (UNN), Tromsø, Norway.
  • Visiting Scholars program, University of Utah School of Medicine, Division of Medical Laboratory Science, Utah, USA
  • Quality Control Collaboration with WHO External Quality Assessment Scheme, Birmingham, UK.
  • Contacts:

Email: LabServices@kathhsp.org

Tel: +233(0)322022301-3 (ext 1185)

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